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Are Coffee Drinkers Destined To Have High Cortisol Levels?

Have you ever wondered why your morning coffee sometimes leaves you feeling more stressed than refreshed? 

Despite its popularity as a morning pick-me-up, coffee can unwittingly wreak havoc on your body’s stress levels, particularly through its impact on cortisol. 

But before you condemn yourself to a life of decaf, let’s talk about what you can do to mitigate the effects of caffeine and maintain balanced cortisol levels

What is Cortisol?

Cortisol is your body’s primary stress hormone. It is produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of your kidneys. This hormone plays a crucial role in helping you respond to stress.

When you encounter stress, cortisol levels increase. This helps your body react quickly to threats. It manages your body’s use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, affecting your metabolism.

Cortisol also helps regulate blood pressure and blood sugar levels. It ensures that these stay within a normal range. This is vital for your overall health.

Your central nervous system is involved in cortisol production.

Cortisol interacts with certain parts of your brain, affecting mood and cognition. It is also linked to the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms, which are your internal body clocks.

Balanced cortisol levels are essential for a healthy life. Too much or too little cortisol can lead to all kinds of health issues. 

Interactions Between Coffee and Cortisol

Coffee influences cortisol levels by stimulating the adrenal glands. The intensity of this interaction varies based on factors like sensitivity and how often you drink it. Let’s talk about how and why.

a hand pours coffee into the head of a man
cortisol and coffee

The Impact of Coffee on Cortisol Levels

The caffeine in your coffee stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol. 

When you drink coffee, especially in the morning, caffeine binds to adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, reducing the relaxing effects of adenosine and increasing alertness. 

This interaction can lead to the adrenal glands producing more cortisol, causing elevated cortisol levels.

Research shows immediate effects where cortisol levels spike shortly after consuming coffee. However, with long-term consumption, this spike may diminish. 

Regular coffee drinkers tend to have a blunted cortisol response compared to occasional drinkers, as the body becomes accustomed to caffeine over time, altering the cortisol response.

Best Time to Drink Coffee

Timing plays a big role in how coffee affects your cortisol levels. 

Drinking coffee first thing in the morning can lead to a significant cortisol spike, which you want to avoid. This is because cortisol levels are naturally high after you wake up. Consuming coffee at this time can enhance the caffeine’s effects (and not in a good way).

Studies suggest drinking coffee later in the day, such as mid-morning or early afternoon, might be better for managing cortisol levels. By this time, your natural cortisol production starts to decline. This timing can prevent an excessive additional spike, balancing the stimulant’s effects.

Coffee Consumption and Stress Response

Did you know that coffee can actually increase your stress response due to elevated cortisol levels?

When combined with other stressors, caffeine can actually magnify the stress response. It’s why some people drink caffeine and immediately feel more anxious and jittery. 

Why does this happen to some people and not others? It depends on a few things like individual sensitivity and how often or habitually you drink coffee.

In high-risk people or those with conditions like hypertension, the combination of stress and coffee can lead to more pronounced effects. 

Factors Influencing Your Cortisol Response to Coffee

The way your body responds to coffee can be influenced by several factors, including genetics, timing, and lifestyle habits.

Genetic Factors: 

Your genetic makeup plays a significant role in how you metabolize caffeine. Some people have a genetic variation that makes them slow metabolizers, causing caffeine to stay in their system longer and potentially leading to higher cortisol levels. 

Others are fast metabolizers and process caffeine more quickly, resulting in a milder effect on cortisol levels.

How can you know which one you are?

The easiest way is to do genetic testing for caffeine sensitivity, of which there are plenty of options out there these days. 

You can also keep a journal of your caffeine intake. Write down when you drink coffee and how much. Record your physical and mental effects. Does your heart rate spike? Do you feel anxious? Is your sleep disrupted? How long do these effects last? 

Based on your observation, you can deduce whether you are likely a fast or slow metabolizer of caffeine. 

You can also ask your doctor at your next check up. They can help you decode your symptoms and timelines. 


The time of day you drink coffee can also impact its effects on cortisol. Consuming coffee too early in the morning can lead to a natural cortisol spike, as your cortisol levels are already higher right after you wake up. 

Drinking coffee later in the day, especially in the late afternoon or evening, can interfere with your sleep and disrupt your natural cortisol rhythm.

So when should you drink coffee?

The best times to drink coffee to avoid cortisol spikes are mid-to-late morning (between 9:30 and 11:30 am) or early afternoon (between 1 and 2 pm). 

Lifestyle Habits: 

Your overall lifestyle can influence how coffee affects you. Factors like stress levels, diet, sleep quality, and exercise routines all play a part. 

For instance, if you’re already stressed or struggle with anxiety, coffee might amplify your stress response. On the other hand, maintaining a balanced diet, getting regular exercise, and ensuring adequate sleep can help mitigate some of the adverse effects of coffee on cortisol levels.

Understanding these factors can help you better manage the effects of coffee on your cortisol levels. You can tailor your coffee consumption to suit your individual needs and lifestyle. For example, if you know you’re a slow metabolizer, you might choose to limit your intake or avoid coffee in the afternoon. 

Paying attention to how your body reacts and adjusting your habits accordingly can help you enjoy coffee without negatively impacting your cortisol levels.

A woman does a dead lift
lifestyle factors and cortisol

How To Start Building a Healthy Caffeine Routine to Keep Cortisol Levels Balanced

Creating a healthy caffeine routine can help you enjoy the benefits of coffee while keeping your cortisol levels balanced. Here are some steps to get started:

1. Time Your Coffee Intake Wisely

  • Aim to drink your first cup of coffee between 9:30 AM and 11:30 AM. This timing allows you to benefit from caffeine’s alertness boost without interfering with your body’s natural cortisol rhythm.
  • Try to avoid coffee in the late afternoon and evening. Caffeine consumed after 2:00 PM can disrupt your sleep cycle, leading to higher cortisol levels at night.

2. Moderate Your Consumption

  • Limit your intake to no more than 400 mg of caffeine per day, equivalent to about 4 cups of brewed coffee. Excessive caffeine can lead to elevated cortisol levels and increase stress.
  • Pay attention to how your body reacts to different amounts of caffeine. If you experience jitters, anxiety, or sleep disturbances, consider reducing your intake.

3. Incorporate Low-Caffeine Alternatives

  • Replace some of your coffee intake with herbal teas or other low-caffeine beverages. Herbal teas like chamomile or peppermint can provide a soothing effect without impacting cortisol levels.
  • If you enjoy the ritual of drinking coffee, try switching to decaffeinated coffee for some of your daily cups.

4. Pair Coffee with Healthy Habits

  • Drink plenty of water throughout the day to stay hydrated and help your body metabolize caffeine more efficiently.
  • Pair your coffee with foods that might help blunt the cortisol response. Foods rich in magnesium, like bananas or almonds, can be beneficial.
  • Include a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins in your diet to support overall health and help regulate cortisol levels.

5. Listen to Your Body

  • Adjust your caffeine routine based on your personal sensitivity and how you feel throughout the day.
  • Keep an eye on your sleep quality. If you notice sleep disturbances, try cutting back on caffeine or adjusting the timing of your intake.

6. Incorporate Stress-Reduction Techniques

  • Incorporate mindfulness practices like meditation, deep breathing exercises, or yoga to help manage stress and keep cortisol levels balanced.
  • Engage in regular physical activity, such as walking, swimming, or low-intensity workouts, to help reduce stress and improve overall well-being.

Bottom Line: Do You Have To Quit Drinking Coffee If You’re Trying To Lower Your Cortisol Levels?

If you’re concerned about high cortisol levels and their impact on your health, does that mean no more coffee? 

It honestly depends on your individual response to caffeine and your lifestyle. If you determine that you’re highly sensitive to caffeine and already struggle with effects like sleep disturbances or anxiety, reducing or quitting coffee might be a good move for you. 

Consider your current stress levels and lifestyle as well. If you’re dealing with high stress from work, personal life, or other sources, caffeine might amplify your stress response, making it harder to manage cortisol levels. 

On the other hand, if you have other healthy habits like regular exercise, a balanced diet, and good sleep hygiene, you might not need to quit coffee entirely. 

Instead, moderate your intake and be mindful of the timing of your consumption to minimize any potential negative effects on your cortisol levels.

It doesn’t have to be an all or nothing scenario, but you do need to be honest with yourself about what’s going to help you reduce cortisol levels long-term. 

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